Apple Inc. | Complete Documentation since 1976

Apple is an American multinational technology company that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Founded in April 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne.

Apple

Apple was to develop and sell personal computers. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, and was Later renamed as Apple Inc. in January 2007 to reflect its shifted focus toward consumer electronics.

All Apple hardware products include:
  • iPhone smartphone
  • iPad tablet computer
  • Mac personal computer
  • iPod portable media player
  • Apple Watch smartwatch
  • Apple TV digital media player.
All Apple consumer software includes:
  • macOS
  • iOS operating systems
  • iTunes media player
  • Safari web browser
  • iLife
  • iWork creativity and productivity suites.
All Apple online services include:
  • iTunes Store
  • iOS App Store
  • Mac App Store
  • Apple Music
  • iCloud.

This Post features the COMPLETE APPLE STORY. Starting with the early days, How Apple was founded, it incorporation, moving on through the Apple I, to the Apple II, the launch and Success with Macintosh and the revolution in the industry [The fall and Rise].
Please sit back as we take a stroll down memory lane, revealing the comprehensive rundown of Apple's history and story right from its origins in the 1970s right up to the present day. We huge You to Follow us! As will tell the Apple Story..... Keep checking back for more as we tell the story in regular installments.

The foundation of Apple


Apple was established on April 1, 1976, by The two Steves - Jobs and Wozniak together with Ronald Wayne to sell the Apple(I) personal computer kit. Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Jobs convinced him to take 10% of the company stock and act as an arbiter should he and Woz come to blows, but Wayne backed out 12 days later, selling for just $800.

The founders of Apple: Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne

Steve Jobs
Steven Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955 in San Francisco, California. His unwed biological parents, Joanne Schieble and Abdulfattah Jandali, put him up for adoption. Steve was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs, a lower-middle-class couple, who moved to the suburban city of Mountain View a couple of years later.
He was hired at the young video game maker Atari, and used his wages to make a trip to India with one of his college friends, in order to 'seek enlightenment'. He came back a little disillusioned and started to take interest in his friend Woz's new activities.
Woz, whose interest in electronics had grown stronger. Steve Jobs joined Steve Wozniak in starting Apple Computer in 1976. Apple's revolutionary products, which include the iPod, iPhone and iPad, are now seen as dictating the evolution of modern technology, with Jobs having left the company in 1985 and returning more than a decade later. He died in 2011, following a long battle with pancreatic cancer.

Steve Wozniak
Steve Wozniak is an American inventor, programmer, electronics engineer, and technology entrepreneur who co-founded Apple Inc. Born in San Jose, California, on August 11, 1950. In partnership with his friend Steve Jobs, Wozniak invented the Apple I computer.
Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak founded Apple Computers in 1976 with Ronald Wayne, releasing some of the first personal computers on the market. He is known as a pioneer of the personal computer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s.

Ronald Wayne
Ronald Gerald Wayne is a retired American electronics industry worker. Born in Cleveland, Ohio, United States on May 17, 1934. He was also a co-founded Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) with Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs.
However, Wayne sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 . Jobs convinced him to take 10% of the company stock and act as an arbiter should he and Woz come to blows, but Wayne backed out 12 days later, selling for just $800 US dollars, and later accepted $1,500 to forfeit any claims against Apple (in total, equivalent to $9,200 in 2015).
As of January 2017, if Wayne had kept his 10% stake in Apple Inc. it would have been worth almost $60 billion.

How Jobs met Woz

Woz, whose interest in electronics had grown stronger, was regularly attending meetings of a group of early computer hobbyists called the Homebrew Computer Club; a gathering of enthusiasts in a garage in California's Menlo Park.

Steven Paul Jobs and Steve Wozniak
They were the real pioneers of personal computing, a collection of radio jammers, computer professionals and enlightened {amateurs} who gathered yearly to show off their latest mastery, ability, capability in building their own personal computer or writing software.

The Homebrew Computer Club started gaining popularity after the Altair 8800 personal computer kit came out in 1975. Woz was inspired by MITS Altair [which today looks like little more than a box of lights and circuit boards] and Love the build-it-yourself approach. So he decided to produce a better version of MITS simply because he wanted a personal computer for himself just to show the people around him and to boast and to get acknowledgment for having designed a very inexpensive computer. Which Later gave barth to the Apple I the First computer with a typewriter-like keyboard and the ability to connect to a regular TV. it was the archetype of every modern computer till this present days.

"When He built this Apple I… the first computer to say a computer should look like a typewriter - it should have a keyboard - and the output device is a TV set, it wasn't really to show the world that here is the direction a complete computer set should Take. it was just to boast and to get acknowledgment for having designed a very inexpensive and impressive computer...

Job saw the computer quickly understood that his friend's brilliant invention could be sold to software hobbyists, who wanted to write software without the hassle of assembling a computer kit. Jobs convinced Wozniak to start a company for that purpose and sold his VW microbus to help fund its production. Wozniak sold his HP calculator, and together they founded Apple Computer Inc (now Apple Inc) alongside Ronald Wayne on 1 April 1976.
The following months were spent assembling boards an components of Apple I computers in the Jobses' garage, and selling them to independent computer dealers in the area.
Meeting Ronald Wozniak

After Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak met and had been mutual friends for some time, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Steve Jobs. They began their partnership when Wozniak, a talented, self-educated electronics engineer, began constructing boxes which enabled one to make long-distance phone calls at no cost, and sold several hundred models. Later, Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer machine and selling it.

Coupling and Selling the Apple I, II and III

Apple I

The most components and kits of Apple I were single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak although he'd wanted to sell them for little more than the cost of their parts but Jobs had bigger ideas.

Apple 1
Jobs priced the Apple I at $666.66 and approached a local computer store, the Byte Shop in Mountain View, who said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came fully assembled, and He inked a deal with the Byte Shop owner, Paul Terrell, to supply 50 computers at US $500 ($2.1 thousand in present-day as at 2017) each on delivery. Both Steves were not able to get the components because they don't have enough money to purchase them. Apple Computer Inc at this particular time was still growing Baby and didn't have the resources to fulfill the order.
Atari, where Jobs worked, wanted cash for any components it sold him, a bank turned him down for a loan, and although he had an offer of $5,000 from a friend's father, Which was still not anywhere near to the amount needed, it wasn't enough.

Jobs then took another smart move by taking the purchase order 50 computers from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics. Cramer Electronics was a national electronic parts distributor, and ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer. The local credit manager asked Jobs how he was going to pay for the parts and he replied, "I have this purchase order from a computer stores called Byte Shop located at mountain view for 50 of my computers and the payment terms are COD. Jobs added If you give me the parts I ordered on a net 30-day terms I can build and deliver the computers in that time frame, collect my money from Terrell at the Byte Shop and pay you."He also convinced Cramer's manager to call Paul Terrell, owner of Byte Shop, to verify the order.

"Terrell was at IEEE computer conference at Asilomar in Pacific Grove when he heard over a loudspeaker that he had an emergency call, it was the credit manager calling to verify the validity of the purchase order presented by jobs. Terrell confirmed that it was valid,
Terrell assured the credit manager if the computers showed up in his stores Jobs would get his money paid and would have enough money to pay for the parts he ordered and the store agreed to release Jobs ordered parts on thirty-day. In the end, it was Byte Shop's purchase order that sealed the deal.
Steve Jobs had figure out a way to finance his soon-to-be multi-million dollar company without giving away one share of stock or ownership. Both Steves started building and testing the computers day and night alongside there small crew.

Wozniak and Jobs were later joined by another friend, Ronald Wayne, who was an electrician and the three started to build the machines. Jobs managed to secure the parts needed to build the machines while Wozniak and Wayne assembled them. But Paul Terrell, owner of Byte Shop was expecting complete computers, not just printed circuit boards.
The risk involved was too great more than Ronald Wayne could bear, and wayne back-out just 12 days later, selling his shears for $800 US dollars.
Interviewing Wayne in 2013. He told NextShark
"Jobs and Woz didn't have two nickels to rub together," "If this thing blew up, how was that… going to be repaid? Did they have the money? No. Was I reachable? Yes."
Family and friends were roped in to sit at a kitchen table and help solder the parts, and once they'd been tested Jobs drove them over to Byte Shop. When he unpacked them, Terrell, who had ordered finished computers, was surprised by what he found. The boards still being a product for the customers Terrell still paid them. Eventually 200 of the Apple I's were built.

Apple 1 board
One of the most notable features of the machine was the use of a TV as the display system, whereas many machines had no display at all. other features are:
» Text was displayed at 60 characters per second faster than the teleprinters used on contemporary machines of that era.
» Bootstrap code on ROM, which made it easier to start up.
» Designed with a cassette interface for loading and saving programs, at the then-rapid pace of 1200 bit/s.
 Although the machine was simple, But it was a masterpiece of design than anything in its class, and earning Wozniak a reputation as a master designer.

Apple II

After the Apple I Computers were sold Woz and Job had enough money to improved machine designs, the Apple II; The design features of the Apple I were due to the limited amount of money they had to construct the prototype. Wozniak moved on from the Apple I and started constructing a great improved version of Apple I machine, the Apple II; The Apple II was presented to the public.


Apple 2



One of the most notable features of the machine was a completely redesigned TV interface with colour graphics and tape-based storage (later upgraded to 5.25in floppies). Also included was memory ran to 64K in the top-end models and the image it sent to the NTSC display stretched to a truly impressive 280 x 192, which was then considered high resolution. A much improved case and keyboard, with the idea that the machine should be complete and ready to run out of the box unlike Apple I sold to Byte Shop which we still needed to plug various parts together and type in the code to run BASIC.

Yes, the Apple II was truly groundbreaking machine and innovation, and one Jobs' biographer, Walter Isaacson, credits with launching the personal computer industry. Jobs introduced Apple II to a Japanese chemist named Toshio Mizushima who became the first authorized Apple dealer in Japan.

The Apple II computer was chosen to be the very first desktop platform to run the first "killer app" of the business world; App called VISICALC. VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. Which created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II. A number of different models of the Apple II series were built, including the Apple IIe and Apple IIGS, which continued in public use for nearly two decades thereafter.

Apple III

Apple III was released on May 19, 1980. it was is a business-oriented personal computer just like it predecessors the Apple II. The Apple III was a relatively conservative design computers of the era, designed to take on the business environment. But was still largely considered a failure in the market. Asking Why? this is what happened...

Apple III

Steve Jobs did not want the computer to have the regular cool fan; rather, wants the heat generated by the electronics to be dissipated through the chassis of the machine {apple 3}, forgoing the cooling fan. But Unfortunately the physical design of the apple 3 cover case was not sufficient enough to take IN enough air to cool the components inside it. Because there was no cooling fan inside and from outside there not sufficient dissipation of heat generated, the Apple III was prone to overheating.
This caused the integrated circuit chips to disconnect from the motherboard. Thousands of Apple III computers were recalled and, although a new model was introduced in 1983 to rectify the problems, But the damage was already done.


VisiCalc

VisiCalc was originally released for the Apple II. visicalc is considered the Apple II's killer app and was the first spreadsheet computer program for personal computers which was described as "a magic spreadsheet that can perform calculations and recalculations". The program was first unveiled in 1979. VisiCalc played prominent part in driving sales of the Apple II and anchoring Apple within the industry.

VisiCalc
Moving my mouse/keyboard, punching few numbers and getting the sum to do some calculations, Of course we'd recognize that as a spreadsheet today, but back in the late 1970s, such things existed only on paper. Converting them for digital use would be not that easy job, but Bricklin was unperturbed and got the job done.

Apple IPO (initial public offering)

Thirty-seven years ago, Dec.12 1980, Apple went public. "initial public offering (IPO)" at $22.00 per share. Do you know Apple's stock has split 2 for 1 on Three Different Times/occasions: 1987, 2000, and 2005. Then in 2014, Apple issued a very big ONE which was 7 for 1 stock split. Basically what that means/implies is that you would have 56 shares today for every share purchased back then at 1980.
Here is what you would have if you had invested $1,000 in Apple’s IPO.  Back to our trip through the company's history

In January 1981, Apple Computer held its first shareholders meeting as a public company in the Flint Center. The business of the meeting had been planned so that the voting could be staged in 15 minutes or even less.
Voting is a method use by a large group in an electorate meeting or stakeholders meeting to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. In another words Democracies elect holders of high Office or Positions in a large corporate body is done by voting.

In most cases, voting proxies are collected by mail and counted days or months before a meeting. But at as this time after the APPLE'S IPO, many shares were already in new hands. Steve Jobs started his prepared speech, but after being interrupted by voting several times, he dropped his prepared speech and delivered a long, emotionally charged talk about betrayal, Judas kiss, lack of respect, and related topics.

Apple Visit to Xerox Parc and Xerox one-button mouse

Jobs was already working on the another computer called Lisa at the time wanted something more intuitive and innovative, a better and superior version of Apple I, II and III. Xerox had research center called The Xerox PARC, now simply called 'parc' where it was free to explore new technologies.

Jobs wanted Xerox to grant him and a number of Apple employees three days’ access to PARC. Xerox granted Apple Computer inc three days access to the PARC facilities. In exchange for the three-day tour, Xerox won the right to buy 100,000 Apple shares at $10 each.

Since Apple stock has been slit four different times now since the IPO in 1980. The first was Two to One slip in 1987, another Two to One in 2000, Still another Two to One in 2005, The split in 2014 was the biggest ever in Apple IPO as that 2017, The 2014 split was rated at seven to one Which means Xerox 100,000 Apple shares would have become $5,600,000 has at 2014 split.
It would have had 200,000 by 1987, 400,000 by 2000 and 800,000 by 2005 and finally leap from 800,000 to 5.6m in 2014 any that is left for Xerox, let's move on with the story.

Jobs was heart was captured by the Xerox Alto, a machine used widely throughout the park, with a portrait display and graphical interface, which was way ahead of its time. though Xerox Alto wasn't a small computer, it was about the size of tricycle - but it was still considered a 'personal' machine. It was the first computer to major on mouse use, with a three-button gadget used to point at and click on objects on the screen. Jobs decreed that every computer Apple produced from that point on should adopt a similar way of working. After visiting PARC, they came away with new ideas that would complete the foundation for Apple Computer's first GUI computer, which Jobs was already working the Apple Lisa.


To be Continued.............................

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